We the People Have Plenary Public Powers

Excerpt* from American Popular Sovereignty @2019 by Randall E. White.

American citizens have always possessed plenary public powers, even in early colonial times. Plenary means full and complete. In this context, the term “public” means governmental. Public powers are the recognized the legal authority held by a group within society that allows for the administration of public resources and implementation of policies for society.

The citizens’ inherent, full and complete public or governmental powers include:

  1. The ability to act collectively as a sovereign body politic to create government and alter or abolish it
  2. Full powers of protection and war
  3. Full public policy, legislative, executive and judicial powers
  4. Full economic powers, such as money creation and public banking

American citizens have traditionally exercised their plenary public powers through both participatory and representative governmental institutions. Our participatory institutions include public sanctioned voting, including direct legislation through ballot initiatives; public militias; grand juries; petit juries; and committees (such as the Continental Congress, Conventions of Provincial Association, and Committees of Safety, Correspondence, Observation, et cetera, just prior to and at the outset of the Revolutionary War). Our representative institutions include the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government.

Although the Constitution does not articulate our plenary public powers, the Tenth Amendment recognizes that the people possess public powers which they have not delegated to their general government or to their state governments:

“The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.”

Also, the Ninth Amendment recognizes that We the People possess rights that are not articulated in the Constitution:

“The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.”

By rediscovering our plenary public powers and political rights, together with learning how to exercise them through our traditional participatory governmental institutions, we have a one-hundred percent probability of obtaining proper legal remedy in matters that most of us had previously either been completely ignorant about, or had given up on as utterly hopeless due to the apparent impossibility of ever overcoming or abolishing deeply entrenched systemic public corruption.

*Re-posting permission given by the author.

The Tenth Amendment Explained: The Constitution for Dummies Series

Alma Gordon remarks after viewing this video:

The wording in Article 1 section 8 is “Promote the General Welfare” which is a far cry from Providing for the General Welfare. Promote and Provide are not the same thing and should not be conflated.


The American Intelligence Media and American Popular Sovereignty invite you to join patriots everywhere in learning American history and civics – the real stuff, not the propaganda found in public school textbooks from publishers with Pilgrims Society affiliations.

To get started, we recommend that you subscribe to this blog where you will receive regular updates, including video presentations, recommended articles, and conversations between authors Randall E. White and Douglas Gabriel. For students that can’t wait to dig in, go ahead and purchase the print textbook which ships anywhere in the world:

American Popular Sovereignty

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