By Douglas Gabriel
“If you want to find the secrets of the universe, think in terms of energy, frequency and vibration.”
– Nikola Tesla
The Ancient Indian Rishis called 7.83 Hz the frequency of OM. It also happens to be Mother Earth’s natural heartbeat rhythm, known as the “Schumann Resonance.” According to Wikipedia, “Schumann resonances are global electromagnetic resonances, excited by lightning discharges in the cavity formed by the Earth’s surface and the ionosphere.”
For many years this resonance frequency has hovered at a steady 7.83 Hz with only slight variations. In June 2014 that apparently changed. Monitors at the Russian Space Observing System showed a sudden spike in activity to around 8.5 Hz. Since then, they have recorded days where the Schumann accelerated as fast as 16.5 Hz. At first, they thought their equipment was malfunctioning, but later learned the data was accurate. Everyone was asking, what’s causing this intermittent spiking activity?
Is the Earth’s frequency speeding up? Since the Schumann frequency is said to be “in tune” with the human brain’s alpha and theta states, this acceleration may be why it often feels like time has sped up and events and changes in our life are happening more rapidly.
These emerging resonances are naturally correlated to human brainwave activity. So, this means we are changing. Many years ago, I was trained in EEG Neurofeedback, so I looked at what these accelerated frequencies might be telling us about human evolutionary change. A 7.83 Hz frequency is an alpha/theta state. Relaxed, yet dreamy—sort of a neutral idling state waiting for something to happen. A 8.5 – 16.5 Hz frequency moves one out of the theta range into more of a full, calmer alpha state with faster, more alert, beta frequencies starting to appear.
This correlates with slowly waking up cognitively. Since the Schumann Resonance has had sudden spikes between 12 – 16.5 Hz, I found this even more interesting. In Neurofeedback, 12-15 Hz is called Sensory-Motor Rhythm frequency (SMR). It is an ideal state of “awakened calm.” Our thought processes are clearer and more focused, yet we are still “in the flow” or “in the know.” In other words, Mother Earth is shifting her vibrational frequency and perhaps so are we. This may be one of many signs that we are awakening.
Scientist’s report that the Earth’s magnetic field, which can affect the Schumann Resonance, has been slowly weakening for the past 2,000 years and even more so in the last few years. No one really knows why. I was told by a wise old sage from India that the magnetic field of Earth was put in place by the Ancient Ones to block our primordial memories of our true heritage. This was so that souls could learn from the experience of free-will unhampered by memories of the past. He claimed that the magnetic field changes are now loosening those memory blocks and we are raising our consciousness to greater truth. The veil is lifting. The blinders are coming off. If true, it raises even more intriguing questions.
Whatever is happening, it’s clear that this acceleration may make you feel more tired, exhausted, dizzy, depressed, and even strange as you raise your own frequencies to be more “in tune” with the New Earth. Adaptation is not always an easy process, but keep in mind it’s all part of your own unique spiritual development.
This global electromagnetic resonance phenomenon is named after physicist Winfried Otto Schumann who predicted it mathematically in 1952. Schumann resonances occur because the space between the surface of the Earth and the conductive ionosphere acts as a closed waveguide. The limited dimensions of the Earth cause this waveguide to act as a resonant cavity for electromagnetic waves in the ELF band. The cavity is naturally excited by electric currents in lightning. Schumann resonances are the principal background in the electromagnetic spectrum beginning at 3 Hz and extending to 60 Hz and appear as distinct peaks at extremely low frequencies (ELF) around 7.83 (fundamental), 14.3, 20.8, 27.3 and 33.8 Hz.
In the normal mode descriptions of Schumann resonances, the fundamental mode is a standing wave in the Earth–ionosphere cavity with a wavelength equal to the circumference of the Earth. This lowest-frequency (and highest-intensity) mode of the Schumann resonance occurs at a frequency of approximately 7.83 Hz, but this frequency can vary slightly from a variety of factors, such as solar-induced perturbations to the ionosphere, which compresses the upper wall of the closed cavity. The higher resonance modes are spaced at approximately 6.5 Hz intervals, a characteristic attributed to the atmosphere’s spherical geometry.
Observations of Schumann resonances have been used to track global lightning activity. Owing to the connection between lightning activity and the Earth’s climate it has been suggested that they may also be used to monitor global temperature variations and variations of water vapor in the upper troposphere. It has been speculated that extraterrestrial lightning (on other planets) may also be detected and studied by means of their Schumann resonance signatures.
Schumann resonances have been used to study the lower ionosphere on Earth and it has been suggested as one way to explore the lower ionosphere on celestial bodies. Effects on Schumann resonances have been reported following geomagnetic and ionospheric disturbances. More recently, discrete Schumann resonance excitations have been linked to transient luminous events, sprites, elves, jets, and other upper-atmospheric lightning. A new field of interest using Schumann resonances is related to short-term earthquake prediction.
In 1893, George Francis FitzGerald noted that the upper layers of the atmosphere must be fairly good conductors. Assuming that the height of these layers is about 100 km above ground, he estimated that oscillations (in this case the lowest mode of the Schumann resonances) would have a period of 0.1 second. Because of this contribution, it has been suggested to rename these resonances “Schumann–FitzGerald resonances.” However, FitzGerald’s findings were not widely known as they were only presented at a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, followed by a brief mention in a column in Nature.
Hence the first suggestion that an ionosphere existed, capable of trapping electromagnetic waves, is attributed to Heaviside and Kennelly (1902). It took another twenty years before Edward Appleton and Barnett in 1925, were able to prove experimentally the existence of the ionosphere.
Although some of the most important mathematical tools for dealing with spherical waveguides were developed by G. N. Watson in 1918, it was Winfried Otto Schumann who first studied the theoretical aspects of global resonances of the earth ionosphere waveguide system, known today as the Schumann resonances. In 1952–1954 Schumann, together with H. L. Konig, attempted to measure the resonant frequencies. However, it was not until measurements made by Balser and Wagner in 1960–1963 that adequate analysis techniques were available to extract the resonance information from the background noise. Since then there has been an increasing interest in Schumann resonances in a wide variety of fields.
Lightning discharges are considered to be the primary natural source of Schumann resonance excitation; lightning channels behave like huge antennas that radiate electromagnetic energy at frequencies below about 100 kHz. These signals are very weak at large distances from the lightning source, but the Earth–ionosphere waveguide behaves like a resonator at ELF frequencies and amplifies the spectral signals from lightning at the resonance frequencies.
They seem to be related to electrical activity in the atmosphere, particularly during times of intense lightning activity. They occur at several frequencies between 6 and 50 cycles per second; specifically: 7.8, 14, 20, 26, 33, 39 and 45 Hertz, with a daily variation of about +/- 0 .5 Hertz.
So long as the properties of Earth’s electromagnetic cavity remains about the same, these frequencies remain the same. Presumably there is some change due to the solar sunspot cycle as the Earth’s ionosphere changes in response to the 11-year cycle of solar activity. Schumann resonances are most easily seen between 2000 and 2200 UT.
Today Schumann resonances are recorded at many separate research stations around the world. The sensors used to measure Schumann resonances typically consist of two horizontal magnetic inductive coils for measuring the north-south and east-west components of the magnetic field, and a vertical electric dipole antenna for measuring the vertical component of the electric field. Specialized receivers and antennas are needed to detect and record Schumann resonances. The electric component is commonly measured with a ball antenna connected to a high-impedance amplifier.
528 Hz – The Love Frequency
According to Dr. Leonard Horowitz, 528 Hertz is a frequency that is central to the “musical mathematical matrix of creation.” More than any sound previously discovered, the “Love Frequency” resonates at the heart of everything. It supposedly connects your heart and your spiritual essence to the spiraling reality of heaven and earth.
The Love Frequency is the “Miracle” note of the original Solfeggio musical scale. Independently confirmed by researchers, these core creative frequencies were used by ancient priests and healers in advanced civilizations to allegedly manifest miracles and produce blessings.
Math scientist Victor Showell describes 528 as fundamental to the ancient Pi, Phi, and the Golden Mean evident throughout natural design. Vic Showell and John Stuart Reid (a pioneer in acoustic research and cymatic measurements) have demonstrated that 528 is essential to the sacred geometry of circles and spirals consistent with DNA structuring and hydrosonic restructuring. The frequency 528 resolves neurologically to a 6, the icon for physical manifestation and health.
The symbol “6” reflects the “spiraling down from heaven into the wholeness of earth.”
In fact, the Love Frequency can be fundamental to broadcasting all matter and energy into reality according to the laws of physics. The frequency 528 is known as the ‘Miracle’ tone which brings remarkable and extraordinary changes. The 528 Hz tone is associated with “DNA Repair.”
The Qube was developed by Tyla and Douglas Gabriel for bio-energetic enhancement and brain wave stimulation as a tool to broadcast a multi-directional piezoelectric scalar field generated through a seven stage multi-phasic collapsed array antennae that utilizes harmonic frequencies, geometries, and planetary signatures relating to human organs, glands, and energy centers (chakras). The Qube also transduces erratic electromagnetic frequencies into coherent energy that feeds the antennae, boost the signal, and aligns the broadcasting frequencies of the antennae with the frequency of silica, the most abundant mineral in the human body.
The frequency of silica crystals (quartz) is 32,780 hertz (vibrations per second), which is a fractal of two. This frequency is the master control frequency produced by the crystals in the pineal gland which also act as an antennae that broadcasts and receives. The Qube is, in part modeled after the functions of the pineal gland and its control of the timing mechanisms of the body. Raising the vibration of silica found in food, into the silica of the pineal gland is similar to the transformative processes of the energy emissions of the Qube.
As a stationary broadcaster of scalar waves (standing waves), the frequency of the Qube creates a shell, or field of force, like a torus field that grows larger the longer the Qube sits in one place. There are no moving parts in the Qube and it has an internal source of energy that is self-sustaining. Ambience EMF energy adds to the charging energy of the Qube but is not the source of the harmonic stream of negative ions created by the dynamic effect of scalar waves running over the surface of a regenerative antennae and broadcaster.
The Qube also attunes to the frequency of silica, which is found everywhere in nature and enhances and focuses this energy in a type of echo chamber that rebounds off the “infinite surface and length” antennae construction.
All aspects of the Qube are built upon the natural algorithms of nature: Fibonacci Series, Golden Mean, Bio-geometry, Platonic Solids, and many other harmonious frequencies that are programed into the Qube’s broadcasts. The balanced relationship of silica to calcium create continuum for the expression of the needed bioenergetic frequencies. Dynamic tension between surface (flat antennae plates) and multi-phasic arrays (seven stage wire vortex) and harmonized with an infinity uni-directional cap antennae causes the device to receive specifically tuned vibrations and use those frequencies as a base frequency generator upon which to program heterodyned frequencies that cause feedback into human bodies that are within the range of the Qube.
In other words, the Qube emits positive frequencies that cause the body to resonant in harmony with it. Somewhat like a tuning fork that is bio-energetic and tuned to the seven phases of energy found throughout the human life body.
In essence, the Qube offers vibrational nutrition.
The Qube’s development arose from requests of teachers and sensitive people to create a “safe zone” for higher human expression. Once the Qube was created and tested, it was found that its energy potential was more dynamic than any antennae previously created. It was seen that with a large power boost and a multi-shape plate antennae, the Qube’s energy could be directed into the atmosphere and become part of the etheric formative forces that surround the globe. After some months of boosting the power and broadcasting the signal, the signal returned from the opposite direction and maintained a continuum of reception and broadcasting. A completed projection of the Qube’s specific energies were united, not unlike a radio signal that bounces off the atmosphere until it completes the cycle around the globe.
Then, the question of enhancing the signal on specific spots within the continuum arose. Thus, the first antennae sigil, bio-geometrically designed to generate energy by cohering chaotic EMF frequencies into the same frequencies of the Qube. The same math that created the Qube is found in the sigil, which is an antennae attuned to the broadcast of the Qube. Everywhere you place a sigil, you draw in the energy of the Qube and that energy dynamically bounces back and forth between the antennae arrays at the end of the sigil.
This energy is created by the geometric patterns of the antennae and this energy is made coherent by being pulled back and forth between the antennas through the spiral shape that creates an open gap that sparks the polarized energy rhythmically until it coheres through the energy generated by the two antennas. Once this energy is balanced, it is emitted via the “gap” between the opposing spirals. This is the natural tension of nature, the yin and yang, male and female dynamic found throughout nature and in our own bodies.
The sigil is an antennae that broadcasts and receives, just like the Qube. The sigil is like “spiritual nerves” that allow a spark of energy to go from one nerve to the next and “light up” the energy that is flowing all around it. This is accomplished in a two-dimensional projection of the third dimensional Qube. As a two-dimensional expression of the Qube, the sigil is not effected by limitations of space and can be in resonance with the Qube through a subspace resonance tuned to the Qube’s unique signature.
The Schuman Wave of 7.83 is created by the resistance between the surface of the Earth and the surrounding atmosphere. This frequency is the same as the human heart as be beats. As above, so below applies to the human heart’s resonance with its atmosphere. This same principal applies for the Qube and its resonant signature frequency in the sigil. The Qube and the sigil work as a pair to balance energy in the environment and the atmosphere of the Earth. You might imagine the pair singing together the language of the spirit so that those who are listening may tune their instrument to divine harmonies.
Gamma waves are the fastest of the brainwave frequencies and signify the highest state of focus possible. They are associated with peak concentration and the brain’s optimal frequency for cognitive functioning. Nobel prize winning scientist, Sir Francis Crick believes that the 40Hz frequency may be the key to the act of cognition. 40 Hz is the window frequency used in all Brain Sync Gamma and Beta wave programs.
Beta waves range between 13-40 HZ. You are wide-awake, alert. Your mind is sharp, focused. It makes connections quickly, easily, and you’re primed to do work that requires your full attention. In the Beta state, neurons fire abundantly, in rapid succession, helping you achieve peak performance. New ideas and solutions to problems flash like lightning into your mind.
The Alpha state is an intensely pleasurable and relaxed state of consciousness essential to stress reduction and high levels of creativity. Artists, musicians and athletes are prolific alpha producers; so are intuitive persons, and so was Albert Einstein. Alpha researcher, Joe Kamiya says, “Its pleasure may come from the fact that alpha represents something like letting go of anxieties.” With brainwave therapy using binaural beat frequencies you can experience the benefits of alpha biofeedback training.
Theta is one of the more elusive and extraordinary brain states you can explore. It is also known as the twilight state which you normally only experience fleetingly upon waking or drifting off to sleep. Theta is the brain state where magic happens in the crucible of your own neurological activity. But for most, being able to enter the dreamlike theta state without falling asleep takes meditation practice. Luckily, Brainwave Therapy can speed up this process, making it easier to drop into deep meditative states, even if you’ve never meditated before.
In the Delta state you are sound asleep. Delta waves are the slowest of all five brainwave frequencies and range between 0-4 Hz. Slow Wave Sleep or SWS, is the deepest of sleep states and it plays a vital role in health and well- being. During this phase of the sleep cycle, the brain begins producing very slow, large Delta waves. Even if your lifestyle doesn’t allow for the luxury of a full eight hours of sleep, a few hours of Delta waves will trick your brain into thinking it’s had all the restorative sleep it needs. Delta brainwave programs are an ideal choice for when you want to access your subconscious for deep and powerful reprogramming.
13Hz to 30Hz Normal wakefulness
14Hz to 16Hz Sleep spindles on EEG during second stage of sleep
14Hz Awake and alert
15Hz Chronic pain
16Hz Bottom limit of normal hearing
18Hz to 22Hz Outward awareness, sensory data
24Hz The light cycle which entrains circadian rhythm
20Hz Fatigue, energize. Causes distress during labor.
27.5Hz Lowest note on a piano
30Hz to 190Hz Lumbago
30Hz to 500Hz High Beta: a few people able to replicate at will
32Hz Desensitizer; enhanced vigor and alertness
33Hz Christ consciousness, hypersensitivity, pyramid frequency (inside)
35Hz to 150Hz Fractures
35Hz Awakening of mid-chakras, balance of chakras
38Hz Endorphin release
40Hz Dominant when problem solving in fearful situations.
8Hz to 10Hz Learning new information
8Hz to 13Hz Alpha: relaxed, tranquil and non-drowsy, inward awareness,
8Hz to 14Hz Qi Gong and infra-tonic
8.0Hz Past life regression
8.3Hz Pick up visual images of mental objects
9Hz Awareness of causes of body imbalance and means for balance
9.41Hz Pyramid frequency (outside)
9.6Hz Mean dominant frequency – earth’s magnetic field
10Hz Enhanced release of serotonin and mood elevator
10.5Hz Healing of body, mind/body unity, stimulating immunity
10.6Hz Relaxed and alert
12.0Hz Centering, doorway to all other frequencies
4Hz to 6Hz Attitude and behavior change
4Hz to 7Hz Theta: recall, fantasy, imagery, creativity, planning, dreaming,
4Hz Enkephalins, extrasensory perception
4.9Hz Theta brain wave
5.0Hz Unusual problem solving
5.5Hz Moves beyond knowledge to knowing
6.0Hz Long term memory stimulation
6.3Hz Astral projection, accelerated learning, memory retention
7.0Hz Mental and astral projection, bending objects
7.5Hz Awareness of self and purpose, meditation, creativity, invention
7.83Hz Earth Resonance, grounding, Schumann Resonance
0.16Hz to 10Hz Neuralgias
0.18Hz to 10Hz Mod. Therapy
0.20Hz to 0.26Hz Dental Pain
0.20Hz to 10Hz Post-traumatics
0.28Hz to 2.15Hz Alcohol addiction
0.28Hz to 10Hz Arthritis
0.30Hz to 0.15Hz Depression
0.30Hz to 10Hz Cervobrachial syndrome
0.37Hz to 2.15Hz Drug addiction
0.40Hz to 10Hz Confusion
0.45Hz to 10Hz Muscle pain
0.5Hz Relaxing, against headache, lower back pain
0.95Hz to 10Hz Whiplash
1Hz to 3Hz Delta: deep, dreamless sleep, trance state, non-REM sleep
1.0Hz Feeling of well-being, harmony and balance
1.45Hz Tri-thalamic entrainment format.
2.15Hz to 10Hz Tendovaginatis
2.5Hz Pain relief, relaxation, production of endogenous opiates
3.4Hz Sound sleep
3.5Hz Feeling of unity with everything, language retention, receptivity
Other Healing Frequencies
21.0Hz Earth resonate frequency, neutralizes harmful electro-magnetic radiation
126.22 Sun, 32nd octave of Earth year; frequency of the Sun (note = C, color = green)
132.0 Associated with kidneys (effects = strength)
136.1 Sun: light, warmth, joy, animus; resonates with the earth year (note = C#, color = turquoise green)
126.22 Sun, 32nd octave of Earth year; frequency of the Sun (note = C, color = green)
128 The frequency of quartz in 32,768 vibrations per second or about 33 kilohertz
This is base 2: 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 2048, 4096, 8192, 16384, 32768, the fractal frequency of quartz
528 C (musical note); miracles (DNA repair), Solfeggio frequency ”MI”; mends DNA
528 The Love Frequency” connects your heart, your spiritual essence, core creative frequency of nature.
7.83 The higher octaves of the 7.83 Schumann Resonance can also stimulate the pituitary in the same way that 7.83 HZ can – especially 31.32 HZ. (One needs to be careful to distinguish between octaves the 7.83 Schumann Resonance, and the other six Schumann Resonances, which are not higher octaves of 7.83 HZ)
8-8.6 Reduced Stress/Anxiety
8.0-10.0 learning new information; Alpha – Rapid Refreshment 15 min; “Low Alpha” inner-awareness of self, mind/body integration, balance
In this explanation of the Qube and how it works, we offered out American Intelligence Media readers the following videos as instructional guides. They are placed below in the order we recommended that they be viewed. Additionally, we had readers who had tips on getting the sigils printed and how they are using them. We placed these comments here, too, and will add to them as folks comment. Please feel free to write your own comments in the comment section.
To read more about our Qube see: The Qube: Creating a Worldwide Resonance of Love
How do crystals work?
Some of you may think that our interest in crystals is some more Gabriel woo-woo stuff. It’s not. The military has known about the use for decades.
Crystals and Science; energies, frequencies and vibration
The Qube is powered by crystal energy, much like that explained below:
How to squeeze electricity out of crystals – Ashwini Bharathula
Piezoelectricity – why hitting crystals makes electricity
As we continue lessons on the principles behind how the Qube works, let’s make sure everyone knows about the Rodin Coil. This vortex energetic pattern is used both inside the Qube mechanism as well as in its two-dimensional pattern found on the sigil.
An Introduction to the Rodin Coil and Vortex Based Mathematics – 369
AIM Patriot Isabelle wrote:
I thought maybe you’d like to put this info on your website for your interested readers:
If you’re interested in getting stickers done of the Qube Sigil, they can be ordered from Vistaprint at https://www.vistaprint.ca/ I ordered 24, 1.5” x 1.5”, for a total of C$12.32, incl s&h plus tax. If you order, you can ask for: circle, matte, 1.5” x 1.5”. That was the smallest size I could get them to print.
I referred them to the link https://www.ourspirit.com/sigil for the design.
P.S. For Americans, there is also: https://www.vistaprint.com/
Our reply: Thank you for the excellent suggestion, Isabelle. For those of you that want a fuller image of the sigil on a page or perhaps you want to make different size labels, feel free to snippet this image below and create your own template for stickers, wallpaper, embroidery, painting….whatever. Be wildly creative. Then watch how the energy in your environment begins to change as you bring another layer of consciousness to your space.
You might say the sigils cast off a “higher” frequency around your aura or environment than you might otherwise experience. It says to the detrimental energies that are approaching you that you have chosen a higher frequency now and the lower vibration cannot “tune in ” to your new frequency on the life radio channel.
The energy of the sigil gently pushes the lower frequency away, back towards its place of origin or it lifts the lower frequency into the new, higher one, thereby converting what was once detrimental into something beneficial. We can’t be more specific about it than this because it is an experience of quality and spiritual sublimity.
Think of a tuning fork. By using the sigils, you are casting a signal that has a frequency higher than your current one. You are casting a signal in alignment with the heart beat of the Earth. You will draw into yourself similar frequencies and energies. You will gently expel those that are not in alignment with your higher consciousness and awareness of self.
Our sigils are tuned to the 528 frequency, among many other healing and loving energy frequencies. This is a type of collapsed array antenna. AS you may recall, Douglas was a signals officer in the NSA and also designed top secret antenna for the military.
The sigil is a two dimensional representation of the internal antenna inside the Qube. Basically this is where 2,4,5,7,and 8 meet 3, 6, and 9.
An AIM Patriot Helen from New Zealand wrote under yesterday’s Cat Report
With reading Isabelle’s information about having the sigils printed for Americans, I wish to add the New Zealand company that has prepared the template for the transparent plastic sticky sigils for us Kiwis : Waimea Print, in Nelson, email: email@example.com. 5 A4 sheets $64. I’m not sure how they would find the template except by quoting the Our Spirit sigil as their reference.
They’re an excellent quality. They’re firmly posted on many a road sign around the South Island😀
Our Reply: The sigil is an energetic pattern of love and other beneficial vibrations. Wherever you place a sigil, the space begins to resonate in a higher vibration. By placing a sigil on road signs, this patriot has created a beautiful path of love, and perhaps even guidance and safety, for travelers to experience, whether they realize it or not.
Here is another tip. You can take a picture of the item you wish to treat and place a sigil over it. The more people who do this for a certain location, the more effective we can be in healing and aligning the area. Below is an image that we have placed a sigil on. Please join us.
The swamp could use prayers as well as a sigils. Print the image and affix a sigil. Then tuck away in a drawer or in a book shelf. If you want to solve a problem, try doing so from a higher place of awareness.
Imagine patriots around the world, placing their marker in time and space with the consciousness that we WILL bring our planet into peace and prosperity. When this many of us engage in a common act of consciousness, the angels must respond. In fact, they JOYOUSLY respond!
The AIM TRUTH COMMUNITY is organizing at a higher level – a spiritual level, way beyond the enemy’s hell on earth – a place where we can all be connected in love and light consciousness as we help to educate and enlighten those around us. We are literally waking up the world after 100 years of brainwashing that put us to sleep.
We are rocking the world awake. If you can read and understand this message, then you have been called to serve as a spiritual warrior. You have prepared your whole life for this moment. Do not hesitate. You know what to do.
Just do it.
The Gabriels offer to be your spiritual sherpas as we explore:
Energy, Frequency, and Vibration
3 thoughts on “Vibration – the Sound of Life”
Reblogged this on Blue Dragon Journal.
Although his topic is analog computing using hydrodynamics there is much interesting information contained within his discussion on frequency, resonance and how biological processes work.
Your website is really cool and this is a great inspiring article. Much thanks to you such a great amount for sharing this sort of information.